About Iraq and Key Financial Statistics

About Iraq and Key Financial Statistics

Overview of Economy:

During 2014, worsening security and financial stability throughout Iraq - driven by an ongoing insurgency, decreasing oil prices, and political upheaval - decreased the prospects for improving the country's economic environment and securing much-needed foreign investment. Long-term fiscal health, a strengthened investment climate, and sustained improvements in the overall standard of living still depend on the central government passing major policy reforms. Iraq's largely state-run economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides more than 90% of government revenue and 80% of foreign exchange earnings. Oil exports in 2014 remained relatively flat at 2.4 million barrels per day on average, despite new production coming online at the West Qurna 2 and Badrah oilfields, because repeated attacks on the Iraq-Turkey pipeline reduced export capacity. During the second half of 2014, government revenues decreased as global oil prices fell by more than 30%. Iraq's contracts with major oil companies have the potential to further expand oil exports and revenues, but Iraq will need to make significant upgrades to its oil processing, pipeline, and export infrastructure to enable these deals to reach their economic potential. The Iraqi Kurdistan Region's (IKR) autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) passed its own oil law in 2007, and has directly signed about 50 contracts to develop IKR energy reserves. The federal government has disputed the legal authority of the KRG to conclude most of these contracts, some of which are also in areas with unresolved administrative boundaries in dispute between the federal and regional government. In December, the federal government and the KRG agreed to sell oil exports from Kurdish-controlled oil fields under the federal oil ministry, in exchange for the central government paying $1 billion to the Kurdish Peshmerga forces and resuming budget transfers to the KRG that amount to 17% of Iraq's national budget. Iraq is making slow progress enacting laws and developing the institutions needed to implement economic policy, and political reforms are still needed to assuage investors' concerns regarding the uncertain business climate.. The government of Iraq is eager to attract additional foreign direct investment, but it faces a number of obstacles, including a tenuous political system and concerns about security and societal stability. Rampant corruption, outdated infrastructure, insufficient essential services, skilled labor shortages, and antiquated commercial laws stifle investment and continue to constrain growth of private, nonoil sectors. Under the Iraqi Constitution, some competencies relevant to the overall investment climate are either shared by the federal government and the regions or are devolved entirely to local governments. Investment in the IKR operates within the framework of the Kurdistan Region Investment Law (Law 4 of 2006) and the Kurdistan Board of Investment, which is designed to provide incentives to help economic development in areas under the authority of the KRG. Inflation has remained under control since 2006. However, Iraqi leaders remain hard pressed to translate macroeconomic gains into an improved standard of living for the Iraqi populace. Unemployment remains a problem throughout the country despite a bloated public sector. Encouraging private enterprise through deregulation would make it easier for Iraqi citizens and foreign investors to start new businesses. Rooting out corruption and implementing reforms - such as restructuring banks and developing the private sector - would be important steps in this direction.

Gross Domestic Product (In USD):

$526.1 billion (2014 est.)

$537.5 billion (2013 est.)

$504.3 billion (2012 est.)

Composition of Gross Domestic Product:

% Agricuture: 4.2

% Industry: 59.5

% Services: 36.3

Composition of Labor Force by Occupation:

% Agriculture: 21.6

% Industry: 18.7

% Services: 59.8

Per Capita Income:

$15,300 (2014 est.)

$15,700 (2013 est.)

$14,700 (2012 est.)


$83.98 billion (2014 est.)

$89.77 billion (2013 est.)

Key Export Commodities:

crude oil 84%, crude materials excluding fuels, food and live animals

Export Partners:

China 23.8%, India 18.4%, US 15.7%, South Korea 7.7%, Greece 5.9%, Italy 4.9% (2014)


$45.2 billion (2014 est.)

$49.98 billion (2013 est.)

Key Import Commodities:

food, medicine, manufactures

Import Partners:

Turkey 23.3%, Syria 17.3%, China 16.6%, US 4.5% (2014)

Inflation Rate (Consumer Price Index):

2.2% (2014 est.)

1.9% (2013 est.)

Exchange Rate to USD:

Iraqi dinars (IQD) per US dollar -

1,213.7 (2014 est.)

1,213.72 (2013 est.)

1,166.17 (2012 est.)

1,170 (2011 est.)

1,170 (2010 est.)

Unemployment Rate:

16% (2012 est.)

15% (2010 est.)

S&P Rating:

Standard & Poor's Ratings:

    • AAA: The best quality borrowers, reliable and stable

    • AA: Quality borrowers, a bit higher risk than AAA

    • A: Economic situation can affect finance

    • BBB: Medium class borrowers, which are satisfactory at the moment

    • BB: More prone to changes in the economy

    • B: Financial situation varies noticeably

    • CCC: An obligor rated currently vulnerable, and is dependent upon favorable business, financial, and economic conditions to meet its financial commitments.

Ref 2012-2014: CIA World Factbook, Wikipedia, PWC, EY, Standard & Poors ratings